Rabbit Feeding Guide

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Introduction[edit | edit source]

If you search the internet you will see repeated over and over that rabbits should have 80% hay or an all hay diet. The 80% hay recommendation and propaganda was started by House Rabbit Society, an animal rights extremist organization. Oxbow is a partner to House Rabbit Society and funds them. For the past two decades House Rabbit Society has approached soon to graduate DVMs going into exotics specialty and offered them "Assistance " on rabbits, even help starting their practices! This makes many vets beholden to HRS and their practices are colored with HRS faulty information.

I advise you to look at your sources a second time, even the big colleges, Purdue, UC Davis, Colorado, WSU.... look at their Rabbit care guides, then scroll down to the citations and fine print... and you'll have House Rabbit Society's fingerprints in it. Hence why Oxbow bags carry their feeding recommendations. Oxbow has a near monopoly on the pet rabbit market and thus this incorrect info spread over the last two decades. Another point to keep in mind when reading House Rabbit Society propaganda is that in the 1990's the House rabbit society conflated Cavy and Rabbit care and even went as far as to suggest they could eat the same diet and be housed together. When it was found out that Rabbits and Cavy should not cohabitate due to the Cavy ability to infect rabbits with diseases, they retracted that recommendation but never adjusted their Rabbit dietary stance.

One of the many reasons that Rabbits and Cavy are fed such different diets is because Rabbits have a different gut bacteria population to guinea pigs, so the mechanism of digestion is different in rabbits, despite similar anatomy

Comparison of the microbial population in rabbits and guinea pigs by next generation sequencing Edward J. Crowley,Jonathan M. King,Toby Wilkinson,Hilary J. Worgan,Kathryn M. Huson,Michael T. Rose,Neil R. McEwan Published: February 9, 2017 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165779


ARBA care guides are written by a panel of DVMs and pellets making up the majority of the diet is their recommendation. Not only that, but a study of the teeth/jaws and digestion of wild rabbits vs domestic rabbits concluded that hay is poor in nutrition, hard to chew which actually causes malocclusion, and causes periodontal disease from hay getting stuck between teeth. Wild rabbits are high nutrition selectors, they only resort to dried hay like grasses in times of starvation/deep winter, just to stay alive.

Pellet Feeding Recommendations[edit | edit source]

ARBA recommends feeding a complete balanced pellet as the main source of nutrition. Rule of thumb for selecting complete pellets for your rabbit should start with a baseline of 16% protein, 18% fiber, and a grass or legume as the first ingredient. Typically feed instructions will suggest you feed a measured amount to most adult rabbits rationed twice a day. Total daily intake should equal 1oz of pellet per lb of ideal adult body weight. Rabbits are crepuscular animals, active at dusk and dawn with a rest and digestion period during the day. ie:" a 10lb adult rabbit would receive 5oz of pellets in the morning and 5oz pellets at night.

A complete balanced Pellets should make up between 80% and 100% of a rabbits diet.


Nuanced Feeding recommendations :[edit | edit source]

Feeding Nursing and Pregnant Does[edit | edit source]

Nursing and Pregnant animals have a higher Protein requirement while growing fetal kits. It is recommended that the Doe be kept on a regular feed ration for the first 2 weeks of pregnancy, but the feed should be gradually switched from a 16% maintenance diet to an 18% production diet. When the Does enter the 3rd week of pregnancy feed can be increased. After the Doe gives birth to a successful litter she should be allowed to free feed having a quality 18% pellet in front of her at all time until the kits are weaned, and she may remain on this diet until she has fully regained condition. Some Feed Additives that are safe and recommended to add to a nursing Does diet to help increase milk production are, Steam Rolled or Old fashioned Oats, Calf Mana, and Black oil sunflower seeds, measured 1/2 to 1 Teaspoon of each mixed into a separate bowl to prevent digging out the feed and wasting pellets.

Other supplements that are safe are banana the fruit only for pregnant does, and banana with peel for nursing does, the size of the chunk should be limited to no more then a penny cut 1 in thick slice, once a day from a medium sized banana, extra huge banana limited to 1/2 inch. Banana are high in Potassium and sugar that can help boost a pregnant animals nutrient intake during the late stages of kit development. Banana Peels can induce labor/contractions so should not be given until right at or after birth. Another helpful supplement for your pregnant and nursing Doe is Tums, Tums either plain or fruit flavored contain calcium that can help boost milk production, Rabbits can have 1 or 2 a day for the first few days as there milk is first coming in , and 1 a day or every few days can be supplemented as a treat through nursing.

  • Foods to avoid in Pregnant and nursing animals :
    • Mint and any plants in the mint family, these plants will dry up milk and decreases production. It is fine to give mint to a Doe who has lost her litter and will not be used as a foster, or to one after 8 weeks to help dry her back up for her next breeding.
    • Banana Peel should be avoided in pregnant animals, as it can cause contractions, but is safe to give after or during labor.

Fresh veg should be limited to no more then 1 or 2 tablespoons total a day, and it is best to use these fresh plants in small quantities for there medicinal properties, or as a supplement then as a main nutrient source becuse they can unbalance the complete nutrition already in your pellets, as well as too much of a good thing can kill your rabbit by unbalancing their delicate hindgut functionality throwing them into a bacterial overload which leads to bloat and GI stasis.

Feeding Weanling Rabbits from 8 weeks to 20 weeks[edit | edit source]

Animals of this age should be free fed a higher protein (17% to 20%) Complete Pellet since their bodies are growing.

Feeding Adult Non-producing Rabbits[edit | edit source]

Non-producing animals can be fed according to need, Protein between 15% or 17% are acceptable and will suit most animals needs. Make sure the pellet has a minimum of 15% fiber. Non-producing and pet animals can be on a timothy or alfalfa based pellet. Other bases may be available but grass or legume hay based pellets are preferred. Try to avoid pellets that use grain as a base.

Total daily intake should equal 1oz of pellet per lb of ideal adult body weight. Rabbits are crepuscular animals, active at dusk and dawn with a rest and digestion period during the day. ie:" a 10lb adult rabbit would receive 5oz of pellets in the morning and 5oz pellets at night.

Conditioning Show Rabbits[edit | edit source]

  • Coat Finisher supplement high in Vit E and higher fat content , BOS (Black Oil sunflower seed) is frequently used to boost these two items.
  • Muscle and flesh Conditioner, Proteins boosters, typically Whey, Rolled Oats and Barley are used to help condition muscle and firmness of flesh.
  • Digestive Aid : increases uptake of nutrients. A few common supplements that assist in are Papaya enzyme, which will also help break down ingested wool and fur during shedding season. Fiber in the form of Grass hays , Beet pulp shreds, *keep amounts small high in sugar. Shredded Plain Pumpkin.

Other Feed Additives[edit | edit source]

Proteins[edit | edit source]

While a cheaper maintenance feed can sustain a rabbit on 12%-15% protein for nonproductive animals, a Ration of 16% will give best results on overall health and condition of the Rabbit. It is worth a little extra cost to feed a rabbit a slightly higher protein balanced maintenance feed.

Although protein is an expensive part of the ration, rabbits can be fed higher levels of protein than those required for the type or stage of the rabbit if the ration is adequate in other nutrients. Therefore, it can be easier to use a 
single ration for all stages of rabbit production. Rabbit Tracks: Feeds and Feeding April 24, 2017 - Author: Michigan State University Extension 


  • Corn Distillers: Do not confuse feed corn with corn distillers. Distillers is the pure protein centers of corn after the brewing process eats all the sugars out of it. When the studies on corn started coming out it created a better understanding of how those break down into sugars... and sugars cause bad bacterial gut blooms that cause bloat , GI stasis and death.


  • Soybean :

conclusion from this study don't use CowPea, it will destroy the kidneys and New Zealand's absolutely fail on it. Soybean can be used safely as a sole or additive source of proteins .

The results observed in this study indicate superiority of  soybean over pigeon pea and cowpea as sole sources of protein in rabbit rations. The study further demonstrated that pigeon pea was superior to cowpea as a sole source of protein in 
rabbit rations. The study has also indicated that even though soybean has been observed to be more effective than pigeon pea and cowpea as a protein supplement, pigeon pea can replace soybean without adversely affecting the performance of 
rabbits. Results of this study suggest that the variety of cowpea used in these experiments is not suitable as a sole source of protein in rabbit rations because of its high tannin content. 
Donald Chisowa

Evaluation of soybean (Glycine max), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) as sole sources of proteins for growing rabbits

Fat[edit | edit source]

  • oils
  • Black Oil Sunflower seeds

Carbs[edit | edit source]

  • Corn*
    • Do not feed whole or cracked corn to rabbits, certain corn by-products and feed derivatives are ok, but not the kernels. Rabbits can not digest the whole or cracked kernels and it will cause a sugar over load in the hind gut leading to bloat and GI stais .**
  • Oats
  • Beet Pulp Shreds

Fiber[edit | edit source]

The digestion of fibre in the rabbit was subjected to several recent reviews (GIDENNE, 1996; GIDENNE et al., 1998d; DE BLAS et al., 1999), as the dietary fibre supply is implicated in the prevention of the digestive disorders (GIDENNE, 1997). However, the favourable effect of fibres with respect to resistance to pathogenic agents was clearly shown only recently (LICOIS and GIDENNE, 1999). In 2000, the same team has also clearly demonstrated the interaction between the initial health status of the animal (SPF vs conventional) and the reaction to low fibre feeds: the higher the initial health status, the lower the digestive disorders frequency (BENNEGADI et al., 2000) On the other hand, a high fibre supply leads to an energy dilution of the diet. The animal thus attempts to increase its feed intake to satisfy energetic needs, and the feed conversion is reduced. When the dietary fibre level is very high (>25% ADF), the animal cannot increase its intake sufficiently to meet its energetic needs, thus leading to a lower growth rate. ~ F. Lebas & T. Gidenne «Recent research advances in rabbit nutrition» page 4


Feeds to increase fiber

  • beet Pulp Shreds
  • Timothy

Enzymes[edit | edit source]

Supplements[edit | edit source]

Hay Feeding recommendations and balancing :[edit | edit source]

"There is a vast difference in the nutritional value of hay, depending on the type of hay, the quality of forage prior to preparation and the type of and manner of the curing process of hay."
Dr. T.E.Reed, Rabbit Specialist

This is a limited listing of commonly fed Rabbit hays , for a FULL list of forage types please see [1] Feedipedia which is an excellent breakdown of advanced nutritional breakdown including granular analysis of each feed type including hays , grasses Legumes forage, and grains. The following is a quick list of various Forages and their nutrient breakdowns.


Timothy[edit | edit source]

Phleum pratense L. [Poaceae] Average

  • Protein  :% DM 13.8 <- best case scenario, typically store bought Timothy that has been sitting for months has a protein of between 3%-9%
  • Fiber  :% DM 31.8
  • Carbohydrates :% DM 4.7 -10.9

Alfalfa[edit | edit source]

Medicago sativa L. [Fabaceae]

Average

  • Protein  :% DM 18.3
  • Fiber  :% DM 28.6
  • Carbohydrates :% DM 4.5


Oat forage[edit | edit source]

Avena sativa L. [Poaceae]

Average

  • Protein  :% DM 9.1
  • Fiber  :% DM 34.0
  • Carbohydrates :% DM 17.7


Grass Hay[edit | edit source]

Catch all: Grass hay comes from a variety of sources timothy, brome, orchard grass, tall fescue, and bermudagrass. It contains lower levels of carbohydrates, protein, vitamins and minerals than legume hay. Grass hay is very high in fiber. Because grass hay contains fewer nutrients, it may be necessary to supplement your livestock’s diet to ensure its nutritional needs are being met.

  • Protein  :% DM
  • Fiber  :% DM
  • Carbohydrates :% DM


Mixed Grass/Legume Hay[edit | edit source]

Legume and grass hay blends offer the best of both worlds and help bring nutritional balance to hay. Not only do these mixes provide a more well-rounded diet, but growing them together often 
produces more forage than growing a legume or grass alone. When considering establishing a legume/grass hayfield, aim for a field containing around 1/3 grass to 2/3 legume. There are several 
excellent combinations to plant. Some of the more popular combinations are orchardgrass/alfalfa and tall fescue/alfalfa. These mixed hays are readily eaten and healthy for all types of livestock.

hay

  • Protein  :% DM
  • Fiber  :% DM
  • Carbohydrates :% DM


Bermuda grass[edit | edit source]

Cynodon dactylon Pers. [Poaceae]

  • Protein  :% DM 9.8
  • Fiber  :% DM 31.3
  • Carbohydrates :% DM 0.8

hay videos[edit | edit source]

https://www.tiktok.com/@dominothespotcat/video/7139937962263022894?_t=8VSUBshbIxG&_r=1


https://www.tiktok.com/@dominothespotcat/video/7139910883932654891?_t=8VSUCWs9s55&_r=1

https://www.tiktok.com/@dominothespotcat/video/7139541620420054314?_t=8VSUDNJgg15&_r=1

https://www.tiktok.com/@dominothespotcat/video/7139182140431846699?_t=8VSUGY1PbEk&_r=1

https://www.tiktok.com/@dominothespotcat/video/7124482741818641710?_t=8VSUKkABG1b&_r=1



Quick links to Hay Resources[edit | edit source]

Timothy

Understanding a Hay Analysis

Selecting Hay for Your Horse Lori K. Warren, PhD, PAS Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida

Shape Variation in the Craniomandibular System and Prevalence of Dental Problems in Domestic Rabbits: A Case Study in Evolutionary Veterinary Science Vet Sci. 2017 Mar; 4(1): 5. Published online 2017 Jan 24. doi: 10.3390/vetsci4010005 PMCID: PMC5606619 PMID: 29056664

List of hay found in US

Differences between Grass and Legume forages

All Hay Is Not Equal: Choose Your Livestock’s Carefully

Rabbit Snacks and Treats[edit | edit source]

Recipe page:

Debunked Studies whose info is still used as "evidence" for House Rabbit society Propaganda:[edit | edit source]

Preference of rabbits for drinking from open dishes versus nipple drinkers Tschudin, A; Clauss, M; Codron, D; Hatt, J-M.The Veterinary Record; London Vol. 168, Iss. 7, (Feb 19, 2011): 190.

This study was widely discredited, and removed from ResearchGate, and PubMed , becuse the sample size was 12 dwarf rabbits total. Not large enough sample to gather any conclusive evidence.



Also questionable Sources on the House Rabbit society care pages House Rabbit Society cites three sources for their information at the bottom of their care page, they cite zero studies, and zero research, you are expected to take what they post as gospel with no reviewable sources to back it up. it is there for not academic but a op-ed opinion piece.  :

  • Dr. Susan Smith, Ph.D., Professor of Nutritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • Dr. Micah Kohles, DVM, MPA, Oxbow Animal Health
  • Dr. Peter G. Fisher, DVM, Dipl ABVP (Exotic Companion Mammal), Pet Care Veterinary Hospital


Dr. Susan Smith, Ph.D., Professor of Nutritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison ( 2002-2010 National Board of Directors, House Rabbit Society (Richmond CA) https://sph.unc.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/112/2016/07/Susan_Smith_CV.pdf

While Dr Susan Smith has a lot of "invited guest speaker" positions, mostly to HRS conventions, and several Lay-person opinion articles on her resume. She has Zero studies involving rabbits in her published body of research, Zero rabbit related peer reviewed papers, and Zero Rabbit related study sponsorships. In fact all her rabbit related activates are solely on the House Rabbit society board , where they seem to be using her doctorate to give House Rabbit Society Opinions more clout but not to back up these opinions with any solid science.


Dr. Micah Kohles, DVM, MPA, Oxbow Animal Health , VP of Technical Services and Research, Oxbow Animal Health He was part of the study that tested , The Effect of Feed Form on Diet Digestibility and Cecal Parameters in Rabbits December 2017Animals 7(12):95 DOI:10.3390/ani7120095 [2] . This study had a total sample size of 15 new Zealand Rabbits. Broken into three groups of five Rabbits. "Rabbits were placed in individual cages with ad libitum access to water and food for 45 days acclimation followed by 30 days experimental period."

"Simple Summary: In addition to hay or forage in the diet pet rabbits are commonly fed a supplementary food as a muesli (granular mix), pellets, or extruded croquettes. This study aimed to determine if form of this supplementary 
diet (pelleted vs. extruded) or composition (muesli) had an effect on the diets total tract digestibility and cecal fermentation patterns. Rabbits had slightly higher intake when fed extruded and pelleted diets compared to muesli. 
Digestibility results were inconsistent between estimation methods. The extruded diet was more digestible than pelleted according to the total collection digestibility method, but according to internal marker acid insoluble ash 
the pelleted diet was the most digestible. Both the extruded and pelleted diet had similar fermentation patterns, with lower cecal pH and greater proportions of butyrate. Our findings suggest that diet composition, rather 
than form, may have a greater impact on nutrient utilization by rabbits " 

The pellet used was also only 14% protein. and the sample size was tiny.


Gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology of select exotic companion mammals https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24767739/   good breakdown of the mechanic of digestion but has no info regarding actual nutrient  requirements 
by M Kohles · 2014

note: study on this topic is represented above that shows the gut bacteria and digestion is different between Rabbit and Cavy.


Dr. Peter G. Fisher, DVM, Dipl ABVP (Exotic Companion Mammal), Pet Care Veterinary Hospital

Gastrointestinal disease in ferrets and rabbits (Proceedings) August 1, 2011 Peter G. Fisher, DVM https://www.dvm360.com/view/gastrointestinal-disease-ferrets-and-rabbits-proceedings it covers diseases of gastrointestinal tract, and what parasites and infection commonly cause bloat, and not diet.

and the 2 other linked opinion pieces read as a oxbow marketing advertisement. even naming oxbow by name.

https://www.dvm360.com/view/rabbit-medicine-overview-proceedings   
Notice how the nutrition section  has ZERO links back to ANY supporting research articles yet  all other sections have multiple sources cites to support the text.


https://www.dvm360.com/view/thinking-adding-exotic-mammals-your-case-load-equipment-needs-proceedings
This opinion piece reads like commercial for oxbow.


Conclusion that is gathered from reviewing the "sources" for House Rabbit society Article on nutrition: Two of the vets they are "sourcing" , Dr. Peter G. Fisher and Dr. Micah Kohles ,don't seem to have any studies or research that actually support any of the claims in the Feeding article claiming to be citing them at all. There only support comes form opinion articles with no supporting research cited. In fact the actual studies that I have found by these vets honestly make a better argument for feeding a complete and balanced pellet over " salads" that are low fiber and high in Fermentable carbs which according to one of these sources studies ,actually causes appendix damage. Dr. Susan Smith has ZERO rabbit research in her portfolio, and her only connection to rabbits is she was on the house rabbit society board and parroted the lines she was fed to boost House Rabbit Society credibility.



https://www.researchgate.net/publication/267686834_NUTRITIVE_VALUE_OF_SAWDUST

Pine Sawdust: CP content varied from 1.8 to 3.5 g/100g, CF content varied from 39.5 to 74.0 g/100g


Timothy Hay CP content 3% g/100g CF content 28% g/100g




Feed Related Studies[edit | edit source]

Research Links

Rabbit Tracks: Feeds and Feeding April 24, 2017 - Author: Michigan State University Extension
Received: 23 May 2021 / Revised: 12 July 2021 / Accepted: 12 July 2021 / Published: 14 July 2021

Impact of feed restriction and of the hygiene of housing on rabbit performances and health
August 2013

Effects of Rocket Seed Oil, Wheat Germ Oil, and Their Mixture on Growth Performance, Feed Utilization, Digestibility, Redox Status, and Meat Fatty Acid Profile of Growing Rabbits
April 24, 2017 - Author: Michigan State University Extension

RECENT RESEARCH ADVANCES IN RABBIT NUTRITION
December 2000

Reflections on rabbit nutrition with a special emphasis on feed ingredients utilization
January 2004


Feed related

Nutrition of the Rabbit Second Edition Nutrition of the Rabbit Second Edition Mohammad Rifky

rabbit_tracks_feeds_and_feeding https://www.canr.msu.edu/resources/rabbit_tracks_feeds_and_feeding

Impact_of_feed_restriction_and_of_the_hygiene_of_housing_on_rabbit_performances_and_health== https://www.researchgate.net/publication/275519611_Impact_of_feed_restriction_and_of_the_hygiene_of_housing_on_rabbit_performances_and_health


https://www.mdpi.com/2077-0472/11/7/662

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/268003523_RECENT_RESEARCH_ADVANCES_IN_RABBIT_NUTRITION

https://www.vetfolio.com/learn/article/nutrition-know-how-pet-rabbit-nutrition

General Feed Supplements

EFFECT OF DIETARY SELENIUM ENRICHED MICRO-ALGAE SUPPLEMENTATION ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND ANTI- OXIDATIVE STATUS OF RABBITS UNDER HIGH AMBIENT TEMPERATURE IN SUMMER SEASON" by mohamed basyony=== https://www.academia.edu/keypass/QllhK1c5L1FDbkFwNEdTNkY4UDI3QnpOTGlCSTRtQ0lNd1V5QTBKVWk2RT0tLXVVQjVtOEVNUm9ZQkIzOEZmY3orSWc9PQ==--c79ce43255800522b842d0c8be4f1a102ba46aaf/t/sPPdN-Qp4b4Q1-bhRvi1/resource/work/21619748/EFFECT_OF_DIETARY_SELENIUM_ENRICHED_MICRO_ALGAE_SUPPLEMENTATION_ON_GROWTH_PERFORMANCE_AND_ANTI_OXIDATIVE_STATUS_OF_RABBITS_UNDER_HIGH_AMBIENT_TEMPERATURE_IN_SUMMER_SEASON?email_work_card=title


Additional energy supplements in the diet for growing rabbits" by Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salah Ayyat=== https://www.academia.edu/keypass/Rk9LdEk3cUt6aDQwdEUvK0dPaHhvUkRVRk5iUzdlV05WelVvS3prZkJGdz0tLWZZRFZWUGN3N2ZNTTBFOU4zRElqQ0E9PQ==--bd7de4edfce98920e93a0b1c5d01a3591f51cc78/t/sPPdN-Qdcm7Pe-p67QM/resource/work/23248022/Additional_energy_supplements_in_the_diet_for_growing_rabbits?email_work_card=title


Effect of Zinc Supplementation on some Physiological and Growth Traits in Local Male Rabbit" by World's Veterinary Journal Editor=== https://www.academia.edu/keypass/UzR2b3BhSVl6QjFMeTk5bjR1dXQxYTNhZXBwQUh2UncxdFNBUVVjZkRoMD0tLTIrY1NFWVBnU05mWnNwZlFPUTlrM3c9PQ==--7ad74ccf2d833f46a06ba9dcf8a6f6d63038c707/t/sPPdN-QfnHV4z-kQ1wm/resource/work/32956665/Effect_of_Zinc_Supplementation_on_some_Physiological_and_Growth_Traits_in_Local_Male_Rabbit?email_work_card=title


Utilization of Flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) in Rabbit Rations. 1. Response of Growing Rabbits to DietsHamed A.A. Omer, AbdEl-Maged A. Abedo, Sawsan M. Ahmed, Azza M.M. Badrand Mervat S.M. HasaninLife Science..." by dr.azza badr=== https://www.academia.edu/keypass/cEd0VnRmek51ZDdkNlJBSVhaUlBmV1F1ekFPRUdKTUR3RjczdnVCVSs3MD0tLW1WVGgvc3M2aTdFUURKV2MwOXAwQ3c9PQ==--8aaaec6b132b8e0db8dc46fab39fe4e45b811b1b/t/sPPdN-Qgz1jJD-HxeW0/resource/work/8539516/Utilization_of_Flaxseeds_Linum_usitatissimum_L_in_Rabbit_Rations_1_Response_of_Growing_Rabbits_to_DietsHamed_A_A_Omer_AbdEl_Maged_A_Abedo_Sawsan_M_Ahmed_Azza_M_M_Badrand_Mervat_S_M_HasaninLife_Science_Journal_2013_10_4_?email_work_card=title

Utilization of Flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) in Rabbit Rations. 2. Influence of Flaxseeds Levels Supplementations on Blood Constituents, Carcass Characteristics and Fatty Acids Profile." by dr.azza badr=== https://www.academia.edu/keypass/UThubG0wTEgrc1BKeEFnT3pycEF1OUxwVHZ6S1RGcVd1SkErVThPQnZqMD0tLXV5ZW5LVitIT0NhdDYvZnFuVWJlRlE9PQ==--4d0a1cc52d355dfd197363aa7fa6dc86b45cdf4a/t/sPPdN-QgG9ADH-bbjVAv/resource/work/12250987/Utilization_of_Flaxseeds_Linum_usitatissimum_L_in_Rabbit_Rations_2_Influence_of_Flaxseeds_Levels_Supplementations_on_Blood_Constituents_Carcass_Characteristics_and_Fatty_Acids_Profile?email_work_card=title


Agronomy: "Growth Performance and Apparent Nutrient Digestibility Coefficients of Weaned Rabbits Fed Diets Containing Different Forms of Cocoa Pod Husk Meal" by Asian Online Journal Publishing Group=== https://www.academia.edu/keypass/L3IzQTZDNUVZWUF2NEwvZDV1Wkp0ZU52TU1meHJIY1dXYkt3UXU4T3E5UT0tLUl3SW9lQ0RZU3NhMjAwNjhIWWY3Y3c9PQ==--a3f206fa63664368e8bfde6eebd8f9470a3bdb2a/t/sPPdN-QpF3kHw-bqigTi/resource/work/35848207/Growth_Performance_and_Apparent_Nutrient_Digestibility_Coefficients_of_Weaned_Rabbits_Fed_Diets_Containing_Different_Forms_of_Cocoa_Pod_Husk_Meal?email_work_card=title


EFFECT OF CHAMOMILE FLOWERS AS FEED ADDITIVE ON SOME BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS FOR GROWING RABBITS" by Ibrahim abaza=== https://www.academia.edu/keypass/YjZsSmVsM3AxM2F4enBmNkU5KzRuTVo2cFJKdUlDY3hVMGJSMDVRS2pwND0tLVN1V3FvTHc5MnI0NXFVbjBuQ1hnYUE9PQ==--3b3eadef9f6ebfe96bfa15eea7a3dfae8e494a31/t/sPPdN-Qpjmi1D-bdz6oo/resource/work/9329672/EFFECT_OF_CHAMOMILE_FLOWERS_AS_FEED_ADDITIVE_ON_SOME_BIOLOGICAL_PARAMETERS_FOR_GROWING_RABBITS?email_work_card=title


The Nutritive Value of Zornia glochidiata as a Non-conventional Feedstuff in Rabbit in Sokoto, Nigeria" by Ndudim Ogo=== https://www.academia.edu/keypass/aUFMWjBISEJNMHVKZ080NjR5TGErcXpJRzJMelp0U0JtamU4Y2lvRFpJUT0tLVA2dEFmL0hEcGg0SFV2TG1teVlFaWc9PQ==--622e2baee790f8efb1144e9240ed1ada4b3fe5c8/t/sPPdN-QnogdXn-bc1HPX/resource/work/18711695/The_Nutritive_Value_of_Zornia_glochidiata_as_a_Non_conventional_Feedstuff_in_Rabbit_in_Sokoto_Nigeria?email_work_card=title

Performance of rabbits fed diets with varying concentrate and fodder ratio in north eastern region of Tripura" by Asit Chakrabarti=== https://www.academia.edu/keypass/MGIycnE2am5lK09CbkEzWnluM1JtaFFjNlk0UVUxSGpQTXNWTE1hS2VYZz0tLWsrdFc5bElVOHcyYmVzWkhrQmRSMVE9PQ==--5b5a30c634eeea396188f5f96e29e2476dd5cdd6/t/sPPdN-QmEt7ei-AvMTB/resource/work/39725417/Performance_of_rabbits_fed_diets_with_varying_concentrate_and_fodder_ratio_in_north_eastern_region_of_Tripura?email_work_card=title


Various Legume as feed and feed supplements

Evaluation of soybean (Glycine max), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) as sole sources of proteins for growing rabbits" by Donald Chisowa=== https://www.academia.edu/keypass/SWR6b1dLWFNBb3pxbFh3VXNCUmxjWnFuV0hac1JuMnhjVERWUzh3djYwOD0tLTdwcXJ2VmJ1UTFTa0p5TzBCUFdlb1E9PQ==--e17ca3b4f9f183f27b84e94a67e75efe6ebf36f4/t/sPPdN-QoQRVXM-WNtJE/resource/work/11351185/Evaluation_of_soybean_Glycine_max_cowpea_Vigna_unguiculata_and_pigeon_pea_Cajanus_cajan_as_sole_sources_of_proteins_for_growing_rabbits?email_work_card=title

Hamed A.A Omerand Azza M.M. Badr.Growth Performance of New Zealand White Rabbits Fed Diets Containing Different Levels of Pea StrawLife Science Journal 2013;10(2)" by dr.azza badr=== https://www.academia.edu/keypass/U2pZNE5LYmdLY2NleXppeDhCb2owd2YxZ0FDNWJub2IzNmNsM0ZCNlpIQT0tLU51UHBhN3JGQ0ZmOWJYclJTdWRKNkE9PQ==--429eb979b597c8159c3230f2bb5e087f0b6765ca/t/sPPdN-QcSQb5L-bxcsdM/resource/work/8539260/Hamed_A_A_Omerand_Azza_M_M_Badr_Growth_Performance_of_New_Zealand_White_Rabbits_Fed_Diets_Containing_Different_Levels_of_Pea_StrawLife_Science_Journal_2013_10_2_?email_work_card=title


Effect of Chemical Composition of Alfalfa Hay on Several . Digestive Measurements in Growing Rabbits" by Rosa Carabaño=== https://www.academia.edu/keypass/VldVYTkrN3FQVmVjZzBlT0tPSXFNN3lJWks5a0JDbSs2Nm0vWk5yNTAvZz0tLThQaE85MTc3Vlo2YmdwVSsrTFpJdWc9PQ==--90cc8df7accb7e7757b217e27490b7698e7cf5a0/t/sPPdN-Qa9cnMB-B2d8N/resource/work/24812249/Effect_of_Chemical_Composition_of_Alfalfa_Hay_on_Several_Digestive_Measurements_in_Growing_Rabbits?email_work_card=title

EFFECT OF FEEDING OLIVE CAKE SUPPLEMENTED WITH OR WITHOUT BENTONITE ON PERFORMANCE OF GROWING RABBITS" by mohamed basyony== https://www.academia.edu/keypass/aGhEa0Y3MXpTUm9QK0g4NS8rbGVZTmwyL3Q2Wmd1bFh0VzhhYTFkR1lGTT0tLWdvNlFRT0hhcEowVy9ESGpQTFplTHc9PQ==--e954ae63b78666fe8b6026136d1caa841a3244e7/t/sPPdN-QaECJQk-baz1zi/resource/work/36496594/EFFECT_OF_FEEDING_OLIVE_CAKE_SUPPLEMENTED_WITH_OR_WITHOUT_BENTONITE_ON_PERFORMANCE_OF_GROWING_RABBITS?email_work_card=title


GROWTH PERFORMANCE, BLOOD COMPONENTS AND SLAUGHTER TRAITS OF NEW ZEALAND WHITE MALE GROWING RABBITS AS AFFECTED BY DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION WITH CALCIUM, SODIUM OR POTASSIUM, IN SUB-TROPICAL EGYPT" by Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salah Ayyat== https://www.academia.edu/keypass/SU9MMGRUSEhLWGlNT20zaXdkTXEyUjJYYWlFaDI2RHRqNnZtYXF1Z1d6WT0tLUphSHIxRlRRbUZQQituR25Gc0dkK2c9PQ==--841cf9236890a2487e4a977273720546ef9a32dc/t/sPPdN-QaqqFUB-nAEXb/resource/work/12692254/GROWTH_PERFORMANCE_BLOOD_COMPONENTS_AND_SLAUGHTER_TRAITS_OF_NEW_ZEALAND_WHITE_MALE_GROWING_RABBITS_AS_AFFECTED_BY_DIETARY_SUPPLEMENTATION_WITH_CALCIUM_SODIUM_OR_POTASSIUM_IN_SUB_TROPICAL_EGYPT?email_work_card=title

Additional energy supplements in the diet for growing rabbits" by Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salah Ayyat== https://www.academia.edu/keypass/NHFKYlphcXg4VWNzZGVkSDVmVVFXYXlqOCtHSEVrd3RLN0NQN2xDZFZwYz0tLVVFcFpIZE9zV3pEWWRkU1Z5N09JcUE9PQ==--b6e433ce56d2392549ee5b405d73fa8c16e303ff/t/sPPdN-QaifWu2-bfmPBZ/resource/work/23248022/Additional_energy_supplements_in_the_diet_for_growing_rabbits?email_work_card=title

Influence of dietary benzoic acid addition on nutrient digestibility and selected biochemical parameters in fattening rabbits" by K. Fegeros== https://www.academia.edu/keypass/b2lheWJTUWNnUEVBTG5Ddm1YamhzSDQySGNZd0k1TVV1aE1ldmFVR1RGVT0tLUNLSk5MYmlvYW1kN29STUUzSCtPelE9PQ==--917462902d2600191af2d70536465a40bd316be4/t/sPPdN-QepHj7D-VtVZd/resource/work/30474431/Influence_of_dietary_benzoic_acid_addition_on_nutrient_digestibility_and_selected_biochemical_parameters_in_fattening_rabbits?email_work_card=title


COMMERCIAL ENZYMES

EFFECT OF USING COMMERCIAL ENZYMES TO IMPROVE DIETS CONTAINED PEANUT HAY ON PERFORMANCE OF GROWING RABBITS" by Fathy Atta=== https://www.academia.edu/keypass/OUJlVHFVTHozWlFQYW9idGdPUmJSUHJFZElZdGRXR3Fpc04rZU41N1IrZz0tLXlWY2FhdldaTll1Y1AwbEpxczAxbXc9PQ==--e16599d129e829b7da7a4ca4d6c379ce72e7532b/t/sPPdN-QeUbKK9-bxtmgk/resource/work/7230460/EFFECT_OF_USING_COMMERCIAL_ENZYMES_TO_IMPROVE_DIETS_CONTAINED_PEANUT_HAY_ON_PERFORMANCE_OF_GROWING_RABBITS?email_work_card=title

RESPONSE OF GROWING RABBITS TO DIETS CONTAINING DIFFERENT LEVELS OF WHEAT SCREENING BY-PRODUCT WITH OR WITHOUT ENZYME SUPPLEMENTATION " by Ibrahim abaza=== https://www.academia.edu/keypass/bGpGeEkrdzZ3NE5PU2hKYUNZdmRQN1JMYjdqMU51RGc0clRmTStHTVhwbz0tLTF5bnhHY0V1TUxLNnZrR1N1WmdmVVE9PQ==--e42c63ee99bdc464d47fa63c8decab24ae97b4fb/t/sPPdN-Qc5erQc-bhct0a/resource/work/5108323/RESPONSE_OF_GROWING_RABBITS_TO_DIETS_CONTAINING_DIFFERENT_LEVELS_OF_WHEAT_SCREENING_BY_PRODUCT_WITH_OR_WITHOUT_ENZYME_SUPPLEMENTATION?email_work_card=title


EFFECT OF DIETARY CORN COBS AND ENZYMES SUPPLEMENTATION ON GROWING RABBITS PERFORMANCE=== https://www.academia.edu/8019560/EFFECT_OF_DIETARY_CORN_COBS_AND_ENZYMES_SUPPLEMENTATION_ON_GROWING_RABBITS_PERFORMANCE?email_work_card=title Ibrahim abaza


EFFECT OF ENZYMES AND PROBIOTIC MIXTURESUPPLEMENTATION TO THE DIET OF GROWING FEMALE RABBITS ON PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CRITERIA" by Mohamed El-Sagheer=== https://www.academia.edu/keypass/bFNjQ1hweHdXMU5jZStuaTVwR0FNMEl2S2FHYzNLa2twOExReE9oeU9OVT0tLUQ5RXdoNElpYzlpUGJCK0hmMnhseVE9PQ==--05cb9b9a585550db2c1c6d59abe3c29322dc3ee1/t/sPPdN-QaMLryt-K4jEZ/resource/work/11938475/EFFECT_OF_ENZYMES_AND_PROBIOTIC_MIXTURESUPPLEMENTATION_TO_THE_DIET_OF_GROWING_FEMALE_RABBITS_ON_PERFORMANCE_AND_CARCASS_CRITERIA?email_work_card=title



REFLECTIONS ON RABBIT NUTRITION WITH A SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON FEED INGREDIENTS UTILIZATION REFLECTIONS ON RABBIT NUTRITION WITH A SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON FEED INGREDIENTS UTILIZATION " REFLECTIONS ON RABBIT NUTRITION WITH A SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON FEED INGREDIENTS UTILIZATION LEBAS F. Cuniculture, 87a Chemin de Lassère, 31450 Corronsac, France lebas@cuniculture.info ABSTRACT In this invited communication the author proposes a list of nutritional recommendations for rabbits of different categories: growing from 18 to 42 days, from 42 to 80 days, for breeding does according to productivity (40-50 kits weaned per doe/year or more than 50) and for a single diet suitable for all rabbits. Recommendations taking account the last published data, are divided in 2 groups. The first corresponds to nutrients which contribute mainly to feed efficiency: digestible energy, crude and digestible protein, amino acids, minerals, and fat-soluble vitamins. The second group corresponds to nutrients which contribute mainly to nutritive security and digestive health: different fibre components (lignins, cellulose, hemicelluloses) and their equilibrium, starch and water soluble vitamins. In a second part, 387 papers published during the last 30 years on raw material utilisation in rabbit feeding were analysed. In a total of 14 tables, the 542 corresponding experiments were summarised each by the identification of the raw material, by the highest level of incorporation used in the experiment, by the highest acceptable level, by the main ingredient(s) replaced by the raw material studied, and finally by the authors reference. Raw materials studied were those used in temperate as well as in tropical countries. The raw material were grouped according to the following categories : raw material used as single food (24 experiments), cereals and by-products (43 exp.), other carbohydrates source of energy (62 exp.), fats (27 exp.), full-fat oleaginous grains (10 exp.), oil cakes and meals (43 exp.), proteic seeds such peas or beans (42 exp.), miscellaneous sources of protein such yeast or leaf protein (18 exp.), animal products (21 exp.), non-protein nitrogen source such urea (9 exp.), forages (157 exp.), cereal straws, alkali treated or not (33 exp.), cover or parts of dried grains source of fibre such stalks, hulls or cobs (19 exp.) and industrial by-products usable as fibre source (51 exp.). Key words: nutritional recommendations, raw materials, data basis"

Effect of energy restriction in interaction with genotype on the performance of growing rabbits: II. Carcass traits and meat quality" by Z. Szendrő== https://www.academia.edu/keypass/ZTN1b3FROWR1aUZhWGM1Q0FJRk1XcWpSajlIRDdGUlZUakRXc21FRmxjaz0tLVNIdE1PS3ZtdnZuR1hWWm82UDg3U3c9PQ==--669990dfc647432f898e381ed8b9b41de23c78aa/t/sPPdN-QmqdKDg-bmjCCY/resource/work/13592540/Effect_of_energy_restriction_in_interaction_with_genotype_on_the_performance_of_growing_rabbits_II_Carcass_traits_and_meat_quality?email_work_card=title


Response of New Zealand Rabbits to Diet Containing Guava Waste (Psidium Guaijava L.): 1. Effect on Growth Performance, Diet Digestibility and Economic Efficiency" by hadil samy== https://www.academia.edu/keypass/bDBFWG8wcXl1MlBnSjlyenBnUkhKL2FZTmVnYmtyVW9vbThrWGNwaERMOD0tLXY4WWFsRlpHU0FKWVRTRTlLTmRCRnc9PQ==--6433eef0d04443b5c7e946a1c73ae59282239da3/t/sPPdN-Qmh7hzB-insEp/resource/work/27823893/Response_of_New_Zealand_Rabbits_to_Diet_Containing_Guava_Waste_Psidium_Guaijava_L_1_Effect_on_Growth_Performance_Diet_Digestibility_and_Economic_Efficiency?email_work_card=title

DOI: Response of New Zealand Rabbits to Diet Containing Guava Waste (Psidium Guaijava L.): 1. Effect on Growth Performance, Diet Digestibility and Economic Efficiency" by Fathy Abdel-Fattah== https://www.academia.edu/keypass/L2g5dmN3WEx4d01hb3JHanJkL1pUQXhZSXBMd3JwczQyVGlGeUhaakFxcz0tLUFPYUloZy9HZnAzMU1wMklmcDUxcEE9PQ==--cf05b9d08abd2994dce26ca3b775a8a327b9c34f/t/sPPdN-QqEo2CE-fAfA5/resource/work/38091315/DOI_Response_of_New_Zealand_Rabbits_to_Diet_Containing_Guava_Waste_Psidium_Guaijava_L_1_Effect_on_Growth_Performance_Diet_Digestibility_and_Economic_Efficiency?email_work_card=title


INCLUSION OF DRIED AGRO-INDUSTRIAL STRAWBERRY BY- PRODUCTS IN GROWING RABBIT DIETS" by mohamed basyony== https://www.academia.edu/keypass/N0V6STlENndzVWprbmthVTJGZEtGcUVha0RzZ2dCWm5sVFZXSFI5VFRPOD0tLWMxRjUyRHpHZ2pyU0l3SGkyR2JXVGc9PQ==--bdf935bf33d5e21673da61a284addd06919e86b9/t/sPPdN-QhFdf7T-VUozM/resource/work/36496618/INCLUSION_OF_DRIED_AGRO_INDUSTRIAL_STRAWBERRY_BY_PRODUCTS_IN_GROWING_RABBIT_DIETS?email_work_card=title


Rabbit’s performance, health and meat quality improvement by phyto-additives" by Attawit Kovitvadhi== https://www.academia.edu/keypass/bi8vWGZUcnVHM00zaDJSRklnOWVsV1VtMjlFQjFnQVNDN3VOUXJEQ3Z4Yz0tLXI0MndMN2J3UE8xZkNMbG5yV21YMmc9PQ==--c03893c550d192819f3dde5b88cb43c0251cfc1e/t/sPPdN-QqNsCkH-0zMCL/resource/work/19803703/Rabbit_s_performance_health_and_meat_quality_improvement_by_phyto_additives?email_work_card=title


PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF GROWING RABBITS FED DIET CONTAINING DIFFERENT LEVELS OF TOMATO POMACE" by Mahmoud Elazab== https://www.academia.edu/keypass/eDNRMFl1YXdrb2ZTMGdxUkJTYkRTWDNzYkJoVHRVN2locDY1c3FjT3ZCcz0tLTB0R3RFeXZLNGduVlQvN2VQQ1ZaL3c9PQ==--b8af070801c6d13d7041b1060baf6b0b2f86db3f/t/sPPdN-QhbGBew-kbnLX/resource/work/35484427/PRODUCTIVE_PERFORMANCE_OF_GROWING_RABBITS_FED_DIET_CONTAINING_DIFFERENT_LEVELS_OF_TOMATO_POMACE?email_work_card=title


[https://www.academia.edu/keypass/dVhDUDgwSXFFTHo0UVBldFNXOHFQVkhsbFZnVEphQm50U1FtK1BNc2JIRT0tLXZOQUhpcFFDZ2czSndMaXZDNGVWTVE9PQ==--3f889f2926497df89c9685f9795796f88b4c76c3/t/sPPdN-Qg4y1P2-UzbBy/resource/work/21181061/Growth_performance_carcass_quality_biochemical_and_haematological_traits_and_immune_response_of_growing_rabbits_as_affected_by_different_growth_promoters?email_work_card=title

Growth performance, carcass quality, biochemical and haematological traits and immune response of growing rabbits as affected by different growth promoters" by Youssef Attia]



EVALUATION OF EGYPTIAN TREE WILLOW (Salix safsafs) LEAVES AND ITS FEEDING AFFECT ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF NEW ZEALAND WHITE RABBITS" by mohamed basyony



UTILIZATION OF Ziziphus spina-christi LEAVES AS A NATURAL GROWTH PROMOTER IN RABBIT'S RATIONS" by mohamed basyony



Effect of replacement of berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) hay by berseem silage on performance of growing rabbits" by Hamed Gaafar


Oil added to feed


Improving the Utilization of Rabbit Diets Containing Vegetable Oil by Using Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) And Oregano (Origanum vulgare L) as Feed Additives" by dr.azza badr


Study of the effect of grape seed extract as a natural antioxidant on the performance of New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits during summer season in Egypt Fawzia A. Hassan1; Khalid M. Mahrose2 and Mohamed Basyony3" by mohamed basyony https://www.academia.edu/keypass/Z0t1TlpMWlo4TjlkRmtURzkxY01MeWZMcEd2SmczNURyUE1GNm10Sy9jaz0tLWNBZ3pLMVZ6RDJ6dnJzeEhsRitsaGc9PQ==--3ea66988e3650ec90c1f8439baede86ffca6bf57/t/sPPdN-QdrCvu9-byFUwt/resource/work/21659194/Study_of_the_effect_of_grape_seed_extract_as_a_natural_antioxidant_on_the_performance_of_New_Zealand_White_NZW_rabbits_during_summer_season_in_Egypt_Fawzia_A_Hassan1_Khalid_M_Mahrose2_and_Mohamed_Basyony3?email_work_card=title